Monday, May 20, 2013

Sanitation in the Literature - May 20

Your semi-erratic-but-maybe-weekly-someday literature round-up on Sanitation, Courtesy of PipesAndPotties.

Any all comments are appreciated!

Factors associated with breastfeeding in two municipalities with low human development index in Northeast Brazil.
Mothers with better socioeconomic conditions, as represented by education, sanitation, and possession of consumer goods, had a higher median duration of exclusive/ predominant breastfeeding in both towns.

Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys.
The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use.

Are constructed treatment wetlands sustainable sanitation solutions?
Constructed treatment wetlands meet the basic criteria of sustainable sanitation systems by preventing diseases, protecting the environment, and being an affordable, acceptable, and simple technology. Additionally, constructed treatment wetlands produce treated wastewater of high quality, which is fostering reuse, which in turn makes them applicable in resources-oriented sanitation systems. The paper discusses the features that make constructed treatment wetlands a suitable solution in sustainable resources-oriented sanitation systems, the importance of system thinking for sustainability, as well as key factors for sustainable implementation of constructed wetland systems.

Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) - From a hygiene aspect.
 For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a <2 log10 reduction in the control.

Land application of manure and Class B biosolids: an occupational and public quantitative microbial risk assessment.
Comparison of risks by pathogen group confirmed greater bacterial risks from manure, whereas viral risks were exclusive to biosolids. A direct comparison of the two residual types showed that biosolids use had greater risk because of the high infectivity of viruses, whereas the presence of environmentally recalcitrant pathogens such as and maintained manure risk. Direct comparisons of shared pathogens resulted in greater manure risks. Overall, it appears that in the short term, risks were high for both types of residuals, but given treatment, attenuation, and dilution, risks can be reduced to near-insignificant levels.


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