Monday, April 15, 2013

Sanitation Articles Published 7-15 April 2013

There's been a few new articles on sanitation published in the past week or so.  Titles and excerpts from abstracts to a handful of them:

Knowledge, awareness and practice of the importance of hand-washing amongst children attending state run primary schools in rural Malawi.
"The study determined: (1) presence of Escherichia coli on the hands of 126 primary school pupils, (2) knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices amongst pupils and teachers and (3) the school environment through observation. Pupil appreciation of hygiene issues was reasonable; however, the high percentage presence of E. coli on hands (71%) and the evidence of large-scale open defaecation in school grounds revealed that apparent knowledge was not put into practice. The standard of facilities for sanitation and hygiene did not significantly impact on the level of knowledge or percentage of school children's hands harbouring faecal bacteria. Evidence from pupils and teachers indicated a poor understanding of principles of disease transmission. Latrines and hand-washing facilities constructed were not child friendly."

Outbreak of Cholera in Tilathi VDC Saptari Nepal.
"Descriptive epidemiology suggested the clustering of cases were around the pond where they clean utensils, take bath and wash clothes. The Vibrio cholerae 01 El Tor, Ogawa serotype was isolated in 03 out of 05 suspected stool samples and in all three of the pond water samples. They reported that most of the houses do not have the toilet and people do not wash their hands regularly with soap and water after defecation. "

Prevalence and Determinants of Micronutrient Deficiencies among Rural Children of Eight States in India.
" A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out by adopting a multistage stratified random sampling procedure...  preschool children were included for ocular signs...hemoglobin, and ..iodine deficiency disorders.... Micronutrient malnutrition is a public health problem among rural children, and it was higher among children of SC/ST, illiterate parents and those not possessing a sanitary latrine. Thus, there is a need to improve environmental sanitation; fortification of foods could also help in mitigating the problem."

Pilot project of the Nutrition-Friendly School Initiative (NFSI) in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Cotonou, Benin, in West Africa.
"This paper describes the first African experience with the Nutrition-Friendly School Initiative (NFSI) in two large West African cities: Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Cotonou, Benin. NFSI was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners in 2006, as a means of preventing the double burden of malnutrition: the coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition among school-children... The Project... fostered the installation of health and nutrition committees in selected schools, and helped with the initial school self-assessments... technical assistance and seminal funds were provided... [In addition,] training was given to street vendors in order to improve the hygiene and nutritional value of food sold to schoolchildren. Other activities included special nutrition events and sanitation measures. In both cities, NFSI showed promising results in terms of school and community mobilization towards improved nutrition and health; however ... household poverty and scarce school resources appear as major barriers to gaining full impact of NFSI in low-income populations."

Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: findings from a health and demographic surveillance site.
"Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area."

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